Much of human need is common to all, such as for food and shelter, all of which manifest  themselves at birth and these stay with us   throughout life, evolving in their form and intensity as our life stages take us into old age.



Other needs such as autonomy, ambition and achievement emerge later in childhood. The manner in which these needs are met is dependent on inherited characteristics and the extent to which the physical & social environment enables or inhibits personal growth. The quality, quantity and type of food, the quality of care, whether living is harsh or easy, the opportunity for self-expression and self-fulfilment all affect our outcomes. So from early childhood, based on how well or not these needs are met, along with the beliefs acquired or implanted by carers, each individual builds up a set of beliefs to do with what life and people are all about, and these combine gradually and become organised into a coherent whole. Our belief system emerges.


There is no discernable purpose, plan or prescribed goal for life on earth.

There is no after-life. There is no supernatural agency for justice, instruction, confirmation, validation, comfort or support.

Any irrational explanation for natural events arises from a need to reduce uncertainty, but that impedes our understanding of the human condition and diminishes our ability to deal with it.

The freedom to choose one’s world view, known as Pluralism, comprises beliefs . . . philosophical, religious or none. This is enshrined in the European Convention on Human Rights.

The concern of all humans should be for the well-being of humankind and compassion for the under privileged or disadvantaged.

That our future rests on our appreciation of the inter- dependence of humanity and the planet’s ecosystems and environment.

Although humans are born with common needs, both within and between societies, people have different ways of satisfying their needs and developing their beliefs.

Endemic difference can be a catalyst for new ideas.

A person’s moral values are acquired in society and its communities, accepting that there is general benefit if we behave well towards each other.

Although there are no absolute rights, it is possible to define universality in terms of the level of equality, rooted in democracy, which leads to global harmony.

Humans are capable of altruism and self sacrifice, but also of great cruelty and disregard for the interests of others.

Much of the animal world feels pain, fear and distress, with common need for autonomy and freedom.

Art in all its forms, including sport, meets the need for creativity and self-expression, enhancing the essence of human desires . . . its needs, triumphs, sorrow and universal matters of life.

Humans need opportunity to meet like-minded, open-minded people for communal celebration and support, at rites of passage for collective joy, or for grieving in times of stress or loss.

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